Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders 2011. 10( ):16-.

Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (IR-PAID-20)
Arzaghi SM, Mahjouri MY, Heshmat R, Khashayar P, Larijani B


Background: This study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Problem Area in Diabetes scale (IR-PAID-20).
Methods: After translation, back-translation and obtaining the confirmation of the experts in the field of diabetes, the Iranian version of PAID was developed. Thereafter, 100 patients with type 2 diabetes who were selected via systematic random sampling method completed the IR-PAID-20. The validity of the scale was evaluated through construct, concurrent and criterion validity and the reliability evaluated by test-retest internal consistency and splitting method.
Results: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the IR-PAID-20 was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.94 and 0.88, respectively). Factor analysis resulted in three subdimensions: "Psychological distress in relation to diabetes management", "Depression- related problems" and "Treatment barriers". The results indicated that the correlation between HbA1C levels and PAID total score and its subscales was not significant; whereas, there was a significant association between the duration of diabetes  and the PAID total score, "Psychological distress in relation to diabetes management", and "Depression-related problems" subscales. Findings also supported the concurrent validity of the instrument.
Conclusion: The IR-PAID-20 is a reliable and valid scale to evaluate diabetes-related emotional distress among Iranian population suffering from type2 diabetes; so, it can be applied as an appropriate measure in research and clinical fields.


Diabetes, PAID Scale, Psychometric properties,

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